Roos opens the Macrocosm section with a quote from the Timaeus about God creating the world as an illustration of his own perfection: "By turning it he shape it into a sphere, giving it the most perfect form of all."
The first illustration is a weird and gorgeous walled courtyard from the Livre de Artephius, and there is also a quote from Janus Lacinius, Pretiosa Margarita novella which they have at Hathi, plus an English translation too: The new pearl of great price. Here is the full title: The new pearl of great price : a treatise concerning the treasure and most precious stone of the philosophers, or, the method and procedure of this divine art : with observations drawn from the works of Arnoldus, Raymondus, Rhasis, Albertus, and Michael Scotus / first published by Janus Lacinius, with a copious index. Unfortunately, both of these books are only sparsely illustrated, but I am including them here for future reference.
By Googling, I did find my way to the image itself at this amazing Pinterest Board: The Ritman Library. Here is Roos's comment on it: "In the courtyard: sulphur and mercury, the two basic components of matter. The three walls symbolize the three phases of the Work, which begins in spring under the zodiac sign of Aries and the decaying corpse. In summer, in the sign of Leo, the conjunction of spirit and soul occurs, and in December, in the sign of Sagittarius, the indestructive, red spirit-body emerges, the elixir or the drinkable gold of eternal youth."
The next page is about the gnostic doctrine called Ophitism, and there's a Wikipedia article. The illustration is a modern reconstruction of their doctrine based on a sea monster at the heart of creation from which radiate out the spheres of the earth and other planets. Roos explains: "After death the earthly body remains behind as a shell in tartarus, and the soul rises through the region of air, Beemoth, and back up to the archontes, although these attempt to obstruct the soul's passage. hence, precise knowledge (gnosis) of the passwords and signs is required to open the way to sevenfold purification." Wild stuff, all new to me. There's even a separate article on the mystical drawings associated with this movement: Ophite Diagrams: "The Ophite Diagrams are ritual and esoteric diagrams used by the Ophite Gnostic sect, who revered the serpent from the Garden of Eden as a symbol of wisdom, which the malevolent Demiurge tried to hide from Adam and Eve."
Roos then moves on to the neo-Platonic cosmic hierarchies (like Pseudo-Dionysius) and also Dante's Divine Comedy. Here's a diagram from La Materia della Divina Commedia di Dante Alighieri, by Michelangelo Caetani (wrongly cited as Cactani in Roos), 1855, at Internet Archive.
He then moves on to diagrams inspired by Isidore's four elements and how they can be combined in relation also to the four seasons and the four points of the compass. Then he shows how Fludd took this old tradition and merged it with Cabalistic diagrams, resulting in these diagrams of macrocosm and microcosm. Utriusque cosmi maioris scilicet et minoris metaphysica, physica atqve technica historia at Hathi Trust. So much gorgeous stuff here, including diagrams much more elaborate than the ones in Roos's book. Look at the frontispiece from Volume 1: Integrae Naturae Speculum, the Mirror of Nature as a Whole.
More about Robert Fludd at Wikipedia: "Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus (17 January 1574 – 8 September 1637), was a prominent English Paracelsian physician with both scientific and occult interests. He is remembered as an astrologer, mathematician, cosmologist, Qabalist and Rosicrucian apologist."
Definitely someone to learn more about in the months to come! Apparently his philosophy was based on macrocosm-microcosm parallels. You can see it intersecting with the human mind here in this wild diagram: De triplici animae in corpore visione. Click here for full size. I don't see the Latin transcribed online anywhere which surprises me; the commentary begins thus: "Hic demonstrantur tres animae visiones, videlicet quatenus illa est sensus, quatenus imaginatio, et quatenus ratio, intellectus, et mens." I will see if I can find time to work on that... there must be a transcription online somewhere!
These last two images are not in Roos but I could not resist including them; I am guessing they might show up in Roos's book later!